Treatment of NEC depends on the clinical staging. In cases of suspected NEC, stage I, initial treatment consists of bowel rest with discontinuation of enteral feeds, nasogastric decompression, cultures of blood, and initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics. While infant remains NPO, “nothing by mouth”, intravenous parenteral nutrition is initiated. Close observation with serial examinations and radiographs is essential. Surgical consultation is obtained once NEC is confirmed, stage II or III. Supportive care includes respiratory support, inotropic (cardiac function) support, fluid resuscitation and correction of acid-base imbalance. Patients with NEC can develop disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (a condition that prevents blood from clotting normally) from consumption of clotting factors and require blood product transfusions. The principal indication for surgical intervention in NEC is a perforated or necrotic intestine. Other indications include clinical deterioration and severe abdominal distention causing abdominal compartment syndrome (organ dysfunction or failure due to a severe increase in the pressure within the abdomen.) Two surgical approaches are usually done depending on clinical presentation, laparotomy with resection (removal) of necrotic bowel or primary peritoneal drainage (the procedure of inserting a Penrose drain into the space within the abdomen that contains the intestines, the stomach, and the liver).