Impaired neurosteroid synthesis in multiple sclerosis

The attention impairments in MHE are observed on a variety of measures. These include measures of cognitive processing speed involving psychomotor responding, such as the Number Connection tests (NCT), block design test (BDT),the Digit Symbol test (DST), line drawing test, circle-dotting test, serial-dotting test, figure connection test. Impairments on measures of cognitive processing speed and response inhibition that do not require a motor response have also been reported (., with verbal fluency tasks and measures such Stroop test). 22,23 Visuospatial impairments have been primarily reported on block design tasks (which also include a motor/practic component), but also on more pure measures of visuospatial perception, such as line orientation or the Hooper test. Fine motor skill impairments have been noted on measures such as the grooved pegboard task, and on line tracing tasks (the latter also involve visuospatial abilities). 24

The course of GAD tends to be chronic in primary care patients, and GAD may "switch" to other diagnoses, particularly depression and somatoform disorders [14, 15] . GAD is associated with impairments in psychosocial functioning, role functioning, work productivity, and health-related quality of life comparable to major depressive disorder or panic disorder. Patients with GAD and comorbid major depression show significantly greater impairment in health-related quality of life than in either disorder alone. Primary care patients with GAD showed significantly higher annual medical costs than patients without GAD (median $2,375 versus $1,448) and higher mean annual medical costs ($2,138) than patients with other anxiety disorders. GAD is frequently under-recognized in primary care, and only 20% to 32% of patients receive adequate treatment. Suboptimal treatment adds to the health-related quality of life burden of this disorder [16] .

Vitamin D is a neuroactive seco-steroid and its importance to the nervous system is receiving increasing recognition. Since numerous data link vitamin D dysfunctions to various neurological and behavioural disorders, we studied whether genetic ablation of vitamin D receptors (VDR) may be associated with motor impairments in mice subjected to several behavioural tests. The data obtained in the vertical screen and swim tests show that VDR genetic ablation produces severe motor impairment (shorter screen retention and poor swimming) in mutant mice compared to wild-type and heterozygous control animals. These impairments appear to be unrelated to visual, vestibular and activity/emotionality parameters of mice, and are likely associated with disturbed calcium homeostasis. This study confirms the important role of the vitamin D system in motor functions and suggests that animal genetic models targeting the vitamin D/VDR system may be a useful tool to study vitamin D-related motor/behavioural disorders.

Disclaimer: The entire contents of this website are based upon the opinions of Dr. Mercola, unless otherwise noted. Individual articles are based upon the opinions of the respective author, who retains copyright as marked. The information on this website is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice. It is intended as a sharing of knowledge and information from the research and experience of Dr. Mercola and his community. Dr. Mercola encourages you to make your own health care decisions based upon your research and in partnership with a qualified health care professional. If you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition, consult your health care professional before using products based on this content.

Impaired neurosteroid synthesis in multiple sclerosis

impaired neurosteroid synthesis in multiple sclerosis

Disclaimer: The entire contents of this website are based upon the opinions of Dr. Mercola, unless otherwise noted. Individual articles are based upon the opinions of the respective author, who retains copyright as marked. The information on this website is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice. It is intended as a sharing of knowledge and information from the research and experience of Dr. Mercola and his community. Dr. Mercola encourages you to make your own health care decisions based upon your research and in partnership with a qualified health care professional. If you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition, consult your health care professional before using products based on this content.

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