Amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) a
Chromosome analysis b
Cell culture, microscopy, and karyotyping
Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) a
ICMA, immunochemiluminometric assay.
a Sample type: amniotic fluid.
b Sample type: chorionic villus sample or fetal cells from amniotic fluid. Table 3. Tests Offered for Screening of NTD and Fetal Aneuploidy Test Code
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Comparison of Candida albicans adherence to human corneocytes from various populations.
Epidemiological data indicate that patients suffering from diabetes, hypothyroidism, obesity, or following prolonged treatment with antibiotics, corticosteroids or oral contraceptives, have an increased tendency to develop cutaneous candidiasis. Since it is generally believed that attachment of microorganisms to host cells is an initial step in the evolution of infection, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether cells from susceptible individuals have increased capacity to bind the fungus. Corneocytes collected from the forearms of individuals of these susceptible groups were exposed in vitro to Candida albicans and adhesion to the cells was evaluated in comparison with adherence to cells from a non-susceptible population. Adherence in vitro was assayed microscopically and evaluated quantitatively by two parameters: 1) percentage of adherence - number of corneocytes with adhering yeasts on their surface, and 2) the total number of adhered yeasts. Results of the study revealed that the mean percentage of adherence and the mean total number of yeasts adhering to cells from individuals of the susceptible populations was twice as high as values in a healthy population. Statistical analysis of the data by Student's t-test indicated that the difference was significant (p less than ).