Synthesis and metabolism of steroids in molluscs

A vitamin is an organic compound needed in small quantities that cannot be made in cells. In human nutrition , most vitamins function as coenzymes after modification; for example, all water-soluble vitamins are phosphorylated or are coupled to nucleotides when they are used in cells. [18] Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ), a derivative of vitamin B 3 ( niacin ), is an important coenzyme that acts as a hydrogen acceptor. Hundreds of separate types of dehydrogenases remove electrons from their substrates and reduce NAD + into NADH. This reduced form of the coenzyme is then a substrate for any of the reductases in the cell that need to reduce their substrates. [19] Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide exists in two related forms in the cell, NADH and NADPH. The NAD + /NADH form is more important in catabolic reactions, while NADP + /NADPH is used in anabolic reactions.

There are four members of the EP receptor family, EP 1 (EP1), EP 2 (EP2), EP 3 (EP3), and EP 4 (EP4). The EP1 receptor is encoded by the PTGER1 gene located on chromosome and is composed of 3 exons that encode a protein of 402 amino acids. The EP2 receptor is encoded by the PTGER2 gene located on chromosome and is composed of 2 exons that encode a protein of 358 amino acids. The EP3 receptor is encoded by the PTGER3 gene located on chromosome and is composed of 11 exons that generate at least 8 alternatively spliced mRNAs. The EP4 receptor is encoded by the PTGER4 gene located on chromosome and is composed of 7 exons that encode a protein of 488 amino acids. The EP2 and EP4 receptors are coupled to the activation of a G s -type G-protein, the EP1 receptor is coupled to the activation of a G q -type G-protein, and the EP3 receptor has been shown to activate both G q - and G i -type G-proteins.

Synthesis and metabolism of steroids in molluscs

synthesis and metabolism of steroids in molluscs

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